Epilepsy refers to a spectrum of chronic neurological disorders in which clusters of neurons in the brain sometimes signal abnormally and cause seizures (NINDS, 2016a). Epilepsy disorder affects an estimated 2.75 million Americans, across all age ranges and ethnicities (NINDS, 2016a). Although there are many antiepileptic medications currently on the market, about one-third of persons with epilepsy will continue to have seizures even when treated (Mohanraj and Brodie, 2006). Both THC and CBD can prevent seizures in animal models (Devinsky et al., 2014).
Are Cannabis or Cannabinoids an Effective Treatment for the Symptoms of Epilepsy?
Research identified two systematic reviews of randomized trials assessing the efficacy of cannabis or cannabinoids, used either as monotherapy or in addition to other therapies, in reducing seizure frequency in persons with epilepsy. Gloss and Vickrey (2014) published a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. They identified four reports (including one conference abstract and one letter to the editor) of cannabinoid trials, all of which they considered to be of low quality. Combined, the trials included a total of 48 patients. The systematic review’s primary prespecified outcome was freedom from seizures for either 12 months or three times the longest previous seizure-free interval. None of the four trials assessed this endpoint. Accordingly, Gloss and Vickrey asserted that no reliable conclusions could be drawn regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids for epilepsy.
Koppel et al. (2014) published a fair-quality systematic review. They identified no high-quality randomized trials and concluded that the existing data were insufficient to support or refute the efficacy of cannabinoids for reducing seizure frequency.
Research identified two case series that reported on the experience of patients treated with cannabidiol for epilepsy that were published subsequent to the systematic reviews described above.
The first of these was an open-label, expanded-access program of oral cannabidiol with no concurrent control group in patients with severe, intractable childhood-onset epilepsy that was conducted at 11 U.S. epilepsy centers and reported by Devinsky et al. (2016) and by Rosenberg et al. (2015). Devinsky et al. (2016) reported on 162 patients ages 1 to 30 years; Rosenberg et al. (2015) reported on 137 of these patients. The median monthly frequency of motor seizures was 30.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 11.0–96.0) at baseline and 15.8 (IQR 5.6–57.6) over the 12-week treatment period. The median reduction in motor seizures while receiving cannabidiol in this uncontrolled case series was 36.5 percent (IQR 0–64.7).
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