Cannabis, also known as marijuana, originated in Central Asia but is grown worldwide today. In the United States, it is a controlled substance and is classified as a Schedule I agent.
Various compounds found in plants are produced by the Cannabis plant. The highest concentration of these cannabinoids is located within female flowers, which contain high levels of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Clinical trials conducted on medicinal Cannabis are limited. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of Cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition, although both isolated THC and CBD pharmaceuticals are licensed and approved. To conduct clinical drug research with botanical Cannabis in the United States, researchers must file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the FDA, obtain a Schedule I license from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, and obtain approval from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
In the 2018 United States Farm Bill, the term hemp is used to describe cultivars of the Cannabis species that contain less than 0.3% THC. Hemp oil or CBD oil are products manufactured from extracts of industrial hemp (i.e., low-THC cannabis cultivars), whereas hemp seed oil is an edible fatty oil that is essentially cannabinoid-free (refer to Table 1). Some products contain other botanical extracts and/or over-the-counter analgesics, and are readily available as oral and topical tinctures or other formulations often advertised for pain management and other purposes. Hemp products containing less than 0.3% of delta-9-THC are not scheduled drugs and could be considered as Farm Bill compliant. Hemp is not a controlled substance; however, CBD is a controlled substance.