Over the past years, several lines of evidence support a therapeutic potential of Cannabis derivatives and in particular phytocannabinoids. Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most abundant phytocannabinoids in Cannabis plants and therapeutic application for both compounds have been suggested. However, CBD is recently emerging as a therapeutic agent in numerous pathological conditions since devoid of the psychoactive side effects exhibited instead by Δ9-THC.
- Delta-9-THC taken by mouth: Two cannabinoid drugs, dronabinol and nabilone, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are given to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in patients who have not responded to standard antiemetic therapy. Clinical trials have shown that both dronabinol and nabilone work as well as or better than other drugs to relieve nausea and vomiting.
- Oral spray with delta-9-THC and CBD: Nabiximols, a Cannabis extract given as a mouth spray, was shown in a small randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial in Spain to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
- Inhaled Cannabis: Ten small trials have studied inhaled Cannabis for the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
Newer drugs given for nausea caused by chemotherapy have not been directly compared with Cannabis or cannabinoids in cancer patients.
There is growing interest in treating children for symptoms such as nausea with Cannabis and cannabinoids, but studies are limited. The American Academy of PediatricsExit Disclaimer has not endorsed Cannabis and cannabinoid use because of concerns about its effect on brain development.
The ability of cannabinoids to increase appetite has been studied:
- Delta-9-THC taken by mouth: A clinical trial compared delta-9-THC (dronabinol) and a standard drug (megestrol, an appetite stimulant) in patients with advanced cancer and loss of appetite. Results showed that delta-9-THC did not help increase appetite or weight gain in advanced cancer patients compared with megestrol.
- Inhaled Cannabis: There are no published studies of the effect of inhaled Cannabis on cancer patients with loss of appetite.
Cannabis and cannabinoids have been studied in the treatment of pain:
- Vaporized Cannabis with opioids: In a study of 21 patients with chronic pain, vaporized Cannabis given with morphine relieved pain better than morphine alone, while vaporized Cannabis given with oxycodone did not give greater pain relief. Further studies are needed.
- Inhaled Cannabis: Randomized controlled trials of inhaled Cannabis in patients with peripheral neuropathy or other nerve pain found pain was reduced in patients who received inhaled Cannabis compared with those who received placebo.
- Cannabis plant extract: A study of Cannabis extract that was sprayed under the tongue found it helped patients with advanced cancer whose pain was not relieved by strong opioids alone. In another study, patients who were given lower doses of cannabinoid spray showed better pain control and less sleep loss than patients who received a placebo. Control of cancer-related pain in some patients was better without the need for higher doses of Cannabis extract spray or higher doses of their other pain medicines. Adverse events were related to high doses of cannabinoid spray.
- Delta-9-THC taken by mouth: Two small clinical trials of oral delta-9-THC showed that it relieved cancer pain. In the first study, patients had good pain relief, less nausea and vomiting, and better appetite. A second study showed that delta-9-THC could relieve pain as well as codeine. An observational study of nabilone also showed that it relieved cancer pain along with nausea, anxiety, and distress when compared with no treatment. Neither dronabinol nor nabilone is approved by the FDA for pain relief.
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